Test Market Timing Models

This tool allows you to test different market timing and tactical asset allocation models based on moving averages, momentum, market valuation and target volatility. The supported models include:

You can find a summary of the selected tactical asset allocation model below, and a more detailed description in the FAQ section.

Shiller PE Ratio Market Valuation

Shiller PE Ratio (PE10) market valuation based timing model adjusts the allocation between stocks and bonds as follows:
  • PE10 >= 22 - 40% stocks, 60% bonds
  • 14 <= PE10 < 22 - 60% stocks, 40% bonds
  • PE10 < 14 - 80% stocks, 20% bonds
The balanced 60% stock and 40% bond allocation is used as the benchmark portfolio.

Moving Averages - Single Asset

The moving average timing model is either invested in a a specific stock, ETF or mutual fund, or is alternatively in cash or other risk-free asset based on the moving average signal. The model is invested in the asset when the adjusted close price is greater than the moving average and the model moves to cash when the adjusted close price is less than the moving average. The model also supports using moving average cross-over as the signal.

Moving Averages - Portfolio Assets

The moving average model applies the moving average signal to each portfolio asset. The model is invested in a portfolio asset when the adjusted close price is greater than the moving average and the allocation is moved to cash when the adjusted close price is less than the moving average. The model also supports using moving average cross-over as the signal.

Momentum - Relative Strength

The relative strength momentum model invests in the best performing assets in the model based on each asset's past return. The momentum can be based on a single timing period, or multiple weighted timing periods. Additionally the model supports using moving averages as a risk control to decide whether investments should be moved to cash.

Momentum - Dual Momentum

The dual momentum model uses relative momentum to select the best performing model assets and incorporates absolute momentum as a filter to invest in cash if the excess return of the selected asset over cash is negative.

Adaptive Allocation

The adaptive asset allocation model combines relative strength momentum model with different asset weighting. The relative strength model uses an equal weight allocation for the model selected assets, whereas the adaptive asset allocation uses either risk parity allocation or minimum variance allocation for the model assets to minimize the expected volatility.

Target Volatility

The target volatility model adjusts the market exposure of the portfolio based on the realized historic volatility and the given volatility target. The cash allocation in the portfolio is increased or decreased as required to meet the targeted volatility level in order to improve the risk adjusted performance.
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Timing Periods
Length
Unit
Weight
Time Period #1
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Time Period #2
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Time Period #3
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Time Period #4
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Time Period #5
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Volatility Period
%
Asset 1
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Asset 2
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Asset 3
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Asset 4
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Asset 5
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Asset 6
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Asset 7
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Asset 8
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Asset 9
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Asset 10
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Total
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Market Timing Results (Jan 1998 - Dec 2018)

Market timing results from 1998 to 2018 are based on relative strength model holding the best performing asset. The model uses multiple weighted performance windows to rank the assets by weighted average of asset performance. Timing model trades are executed using the end of month close price each month based on the end of month signals. The time period was constrained by the available data for Vanguard International Explorer Inv (VINEX) [Dec 1996 - Oct 2019].

Performance statistics for the timing portfolio and benchmark portfolios
PortfolioInitial BalanceFinal BalanceCAGRStdevBest YearWorst YearMax. DrawdownSharpe RatioSortino RatioUS Mkt Correlation
Timing Portfolio$10,000$92,02011.15%20.84%90.29%-48.53%-60.22% 0.520.780.75
Vanguard International Explorer Inv$10,000$70,0159.71%18.91%90.29%-46.62%-59.56% 0.490.710.77
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Notes on results:
  • Past performance is not a guarantee of future returns. See Disclaimer and Terms of Use
  • The selected portfolio allocation for comparison assumes monthly rebalancing
  • An equal-weight allocation is used for the assets held by the momentum model
  • The results for the timing portfolio assume monthly rebalancing trades
  • The relative strength signal is based on total return including dividends
  • Additional trading costs and taxes for timing models are not reflected in the results
  • CAGR = Compound Annual Growth Rate
  • Stdev = Annualized standard deviation of monthly returns
  • Sharpe and Sortino ratios are calculated and annualized from monthly excess returns over the risk free rate (1-month treasury bill)
  • Stock market correlation is based on the correlation of monthly returns
  • Drawdowns are calculated based on monthly returns excluding cashflows
  • Refer to the FAQ regarding the list of data sources and methodology for additional details
Annual returns for the timing portfolio and various benchmark portfolios
YearInflationReturnBalanceVanguard Emerging Mkts Stock Idx Inv (VEIEX)Vanguard International Explorer Inv (VINEX)
Timing PortfolioVanguard International Explorer InvTiming PortfolioVanguard International Explorer Inv
19981.61%25.98%25.98%$12,598$12,598-18.12%25.98%
19992.68%90.29%90.29%$23,973$23,97361.57%90.29%
20003.39%-2.68%-2.68%$23,331$23,331-27.56%-2.68%
20011.55%-14.85%-22.52%$19,866$18,078-2.88%-22.52%
20022.38%-8.01%-13.88%$18,275$15,569-7.43%-13.88%
20031.88%52.47%57.37%$27,865$24,50157.65%57.37%
20043.26%30.20%31.77%$36,280$32,28626.12%31.77%
20053.42%29.33%20.49%$46,922$38,90332.05%20.49%
20062.54%20.45%30.34%$56,519$50,70829.39%30.34%
20074.08%34.82%5.15%$76,199$53,32038.90%5.15%
20080.09%-48.53%-46.62%$39,216$28,463-52.81%-46.62%
20092.72%60.14%47.12%$62,801$41,87575.98%47.12%
20101.50%18.86%22.55%$74,646$51,31718.86%22.55%
20112.96%-22.33%-19.74%$57,980$41,188-18.78%-19.74%
20121.74%11.61%17.93%$64,714$48,57218.64%17.93%
20131.50%24.83%30.24%$80,783$63,258-5.19%30.24%
20140.76%-3.13%-2.88%$78,253$61,4380.42%-2.88%
20150.73%6.10%8.60%$83,030$66,723-15.47%8.60%
20162.07%-2.12%-1.77%$81,272$65,54511.50%-1.77%
20172.11%34.15%38.77%$109,031$90,95531.15%38.77%
20181.91%-15.60%-23.02%$92,020$70,015-14.71%-23.02%
Monthly returns for the timing portfolio and various benchmark portfolios
YearMonthReturnBalanceVanguard Emerging Mkts Stock Idx Inv (VEIEX)Vanguard International Explorer Inv (VINEX)
Timing PortfolioVanguard International Explorer InvTiming PortfolioVanguard International Explorer Inv
199817.75%7.75%$10,775$10,775-8.02%7.75%
199825.57%5.57%$11,375$11,37511.87%5.57%
199835.71%5.71%$12,025$12,0253.60%5.71%
199845.09%5.09%$12,637$12,637-1.03%5.09%
199855.04%5.04%$13,275$13,275-12.54%5.04%
19986-0.38%-0.38%$13,225$13,225-9.34%-0.38%
199872.36%2.36%$13,537$13,5371.80%2.36%
19988-12.74%-12.74%$11,812$11,812-26.12%-12.74%
19989-5.29%-5.29%$11,187$11,1879.39%-5.29%
1998104.47%4.47%$11,687$11,68715.43%4.47%
1998113.42%3.42%$12,088$12,0886.31%3.42%
1998124.22%4.22%$12,598$12,598-3.07%4.22%
199911.82%1.82%$12,828$12,828-2.91%1.82%
199925.06%5.06%$13,476$13,4762.21%5.06%
199935.22%5.22%$14,179$14,17911.72%5.22%
199948.29%8.29%$15,355$15,35515.39%8.29%
19995-0.88%-0.88%$15,220$15,220-4.15%-0.88%
1999612.43%12.43%$17,113$17,1137.94%12.43%
199979.00%9.00%$18,653$18,653-3.44%9.00%
199983.19%3.19%$19,248$19,248-0.99%3.19%
19999-1.40%-1.40%$18,978$18,978-0.50%-1.40%
1999101.85%1.85%$19,329$19,3293.82%1.85%
19991111.96%11.96%$21,641$21,6418.12%11.96%
19991210.78%10.78%$23,973$23,97314.31%10.78%
2000111.64%11.64%$26,764$26,764-4.88%11.64%
2000217.38%17.38%$31,415$31,4153.53%17.38%
20003-3.93%-3.93%$30,180$30,180-0.90%-3.93%
20004-11.47%-11.47%$26,718$26,718-7.47%-11.47%
20005-6.68%-6.68%$24,934$24,934-5.32%-6.68%
200065.99%5.99%$26,428$26,4286.27%5.99%
20007-2.65%-2.65%$25,727$25,727-5.20%-2.65%
200083.50%3.50%$26,626$26,6261.49%3.50%
20009-2.69%-2.69%$25,910$25,910-6.14%-2.69%
200010-8.77%-8.77%$23,637$23,637-7.61%-8.77%
200011-4.32%-4.32%$22,616$22,616-9.82%-4.32%
2000123.16%3.16%$23,331$23,3315.95%3.16%
200111.67%1.67%$23,721$23,72111.76%1.67%
20012-8.70%-4.78%$21,656$22,587-8.70%-4.78%
20013-10.42%-8.31%$19,399$20,709-10.42%-8.31%
200149.29%5.83%$21,202$21,9189.29%5.83%
20015-2.21%-2.21%$20,734$21,4341.47%-2.21%
20016-2.12%-4.34%$20,294$20,505-2.12%-4.34%
20017-6.74%-4.62%$18,927$19,557-6.74%-4.62%
20018-0.98%-1.90%$18,742$19,185-0.98%-1.90%
20019-15.57%-14.83%$15,823$16,341-15.57%-14.83%
2001106.59%3.19%$16,866$16,8616.59%3.19%
2001119.34%5.95%$18,441$17,8659.34%5.95%
2001127.73%1.19%$19,866$18,0787.73%1.19%
200212.87%-1.57%$20,436$17,7952.87%-1.57%
200222.67%-0.85%$20,982$17,6442.67%-0.85%
200234.52%6.63%$21,931$18,8144.52%6.63%
200240.32%2.91%$22,002$19,3610.32%2.91%
20025-0.43%1.27%$21,907$19,606-0.43%1.27%
20026-8.23%-4.52%$20,103$18,719-8.23%-4.52%
20027-9.07%-9.07%$18,279$17,021-8.50%-9.07%
200281.42%-1.44%$18,539$16,7761.42%-1.44%
20029-10.69%-10.69%$16,558$14,983-10.69%-10.69%
2002106.55%2.14%$17,643$15,3046.55%2.14%
2002117.09%4.32%$18,893$15,9647.09%4.32%
200212-3.27%-2.47%$18,275$15,569-3.27%-2.47%
200310.13%-2.08%$18,299$15,2460.13%-2.08%
20032-3.80%-2.62%$17,604$14,847-3.80%-2.62%
20033-2.04%-1.41%$17,245$14,638-2.04%-1.41%
200348.75%10.65%$18,754$16,1968.75%10.65%
2003511.15%11.15%$20,845$18,0026.39%11.15%
200363.80%3.80%$21,638$18,6875.88%3.80%
200374.78%4.78%$22,672$19,5807.03%4.78%
200386.36%4.08%$24,113$20,3796.36%4.08%
200390.80%5.41%$24,305$21,4810.80%5.41%
2003105.22%5.22%$25,574$22,6039.09%5.22%
2003111.09%2.19%$25,852$23,0971.09%2.19%
2003127.78%6.08%$27,865$24,5017.78%6.08%
200413.12%4.21%$28,735$25,5333.12%4.21%
200423.52%3.52%$29,746$26,4314.17%3.52%
200432.31%2.31%$30,434$27,0430.39%2.31%
20044-1.98%-1.98%$29,832$26,508-7.90%-1.98%
20045-1.15%-1.15%$29,487$26,202-0.85%-1.15%
200463.21%3.21%$30,434$27,043-0.09%3.21%
20047-2.76%-2.76%$29,595$26,298-1.80%-2.76%
200480.87%0.87%$29,853$26,5274.10%0.87%
200492.38%2.38%$30,563$27,1585.62%2.38%
2004102.30%3.03%$31,267$27,9792.30%3.03%
20041110.17%7.72%$34,447$30,13910.17%7.72%
2004125.32%7.12%$36,280$32,2865.32%7.12%
20051-0.14%0.92%$36,231$32,582-0.14%0.92%
200528.87%4.31%$39,443$33,9858.87%4.31%
20053-6.70%-2.21%$36,799$33,234-6.70%-2.21%
20054-2.02%-2.02%$36,055$32,562-2.89%-2.02%
200550.36%0.36%$36,186$32,6813.39%0.36%
200563.28%2.72%$37,373$33,5703.28%2.72%
200576.87%4.53%$39,938$35,0926.87%4.53%
200580.97%2.03%$40,326$35,8030.97%2.03%
200598.64%3.53%$43,811$37,0678.64%3.53%
200510-6.57%-4.10%$40,931$35,546-6.57%-4.10%
2005117.98%2.67%$44,198$36,4947.98%2.67%
2005126.16%6.60%$46,922$38,9036.16%6.60%
2006111.48%7.37%$52,310$41,76811.48%7.37%
20062-1.46%0.62%$51,548$42,029-1.46%0.62%
200631.24%5.27%$52,187$44,2431.24%5.27%
200647.12%5.50%$55,903$46,6747.12%5.50%
20065-10.74%-4.93%$49,899$44,373-10.74%-4.93%
20066-2.15%-2.15%$48,825$43,418-0.20%-2.15%
20067-0.50%-0.50%$48,581$43,2011.19%-0.50%
200682.36%2.36%$49,728$44,2212.05%2.36%
200690.72%1.82%$50,085$45,0250.72%1.82%
2006103.66%3.66%$51,920$46,6744.75%3.66%
2006114.51%4.51%$54,263$48,7807.44%4.51%
2006124.16%3.95%$56,519$50,7084.16%3.95%
20071-0.58%2.94%$56,193$52,198-0.58%2.94%
200720.32%0.32%$56,374$52,366-1.28%0.32%
200733.21%3.21%$58,185$54,0484.11%3.21%
200743.87%3.87%$60,436$56,1394.23%3.87%
200752.44%2.44%$61,911$57,5095.96%2.44%
200764.49%-1.13%$64,691$56,8604.49%-1.13%
200774.30%-0.46%$67,471$56,5954.30%-0.46%
20078-0.94%-2.97%$66,838$54,913-0.94%-2.97%
2007910.75%2.01%$74,026$56,01910.75%2.01%
20071012.31%5.96%$83,135$59,35912.31%5.96%
200711-7.99%-8.06%$76,490$54,577-7.99%-8.06%
200712-0.38%-2.30%$76,199$53,320-0.38%-2.30%
20081-11.08%-9.13%$67,756$48,452-11.08%-9.13%
200824.65%2.26%$70,908$49,5464.65%2.26%
20083-3.80%-1.34%$68,216$48,884-3.80%-1.34%
200848.09%2.24%$73,737$49,9798.09%2.24%
200851.84%2.07%$75,095$51,0161.84%2.07%
20086-10.39%-7.91%$67,295$46,983-10.39%-7.91%
20087-4.14%-5.82%$64,512$44,246-4.14%-5.82%
20088-7.81%-3.39%$59,473$42,748-7.81%-3.39%
20089-16.25%-15.43%$49,810$36,152-16.25%-15.43%
200810-24.14%-24.14%$37,784$27,423-27.67%-24.14%
200811-4.94%-4.94%$35,919$26,069-7.85%-4.94%
2008129.18%9.18%$39,216$28,4638.30%9.18%
20091-9.15%-9.15%$35,629$25,859-8.19%-9.15%
20092-7.18%-7.18%$33,072$24,003-6.07%-7.18%
200937.98%7.98%$35,711$25,91916.03%7.98%
2009416.03%13.97%$41,436$29,54016.03%13.97%
2009518.27%13.98%$49,004$33,67018.27%13.98%
20096-2.25%1.96%$47,902$34,329-2.25%1.96%
2009711.55%7.41%$53,435$36,87311.55%7.41%
20098-0.63%5.19%$53,100$38,788-0.63%5.19%
200999.29%6.33%$58,034$41,2439.29%6.33%
200910-1.36%-1.67%$57,243$40,554-1.36%-1.67%
2009115.90%1.70%$60,620$41,2435.90%1.70%
2009123.60%1.53%$62,801$41,8753.60%1.53%
20101-6.25%-1.96%$58,873$41,055-6.25%-1.96%
201021.07%-0.89%$59,504$40,6911.07%-0.89%
201038.15%7.16%$64,353$43,6068.15%7.16%
201040.26%1.04%$64,523$44,0610.26%1.04%
20105-9.32%-11.51%$58,509$38,990-9.32%-11.51%
20106-0.04%-0.16%$58,485$38,929-0.04%-0.16%
201079.25%9.52%$63,892$42,6349.25%9.52%
20108-2.24%-2.64%$62,462$41,510-2.24%-2.64%
2010911.18%11.56%$69,445$46,30811.18%11.56%
2010102.97%3.67%$71,506$48,0092.97%3.67%
201011-2.71%-3.16%$69,566$46,491-2.71%-3.16%
2010127.30%10.38%$74,646$51,3177.30%10.38%
201110.72%0.72%$75,183$51,686-2.77%0.72%
201121.25%1.25%$76,123$52,333-0.85%1.25%
201130.47%0.47%$76,481$52,5795.57%0.47%
201144.92%4.92%$80,243$55,1653.47%4.92%
20115-2.46%-2.46%$78,273$53,810-2.82%-2.46%
20116-2.80%-2.80%$76,078$52,302-1.51%-2.80%
20117-1.59%-1.59%$74,869$51,471-0.82%-1.59%
20118-8.54%-9.69%$68,476$46,484-8.54%-9.69%
20119-16.19%-11.79%$57,392$41,004-16.19%-11.79%
2011108.18%8.18%$62,089$44,36013.51%8.18%
201111-3.41%-3.96%$59,972$42,605-3.41%-3.96%
201112-3.32%-3.32%$57,980$41,188-3.32%-3.32%
2012111.12%8.81%$64,425$44,81911.12%8.81%
201225.56%5.59%$68,008$47,3255.56%5.59%
20123-2.86%0.41%$66,060$47,518-2.86%0.41%
20124-1.75%-0.68%$64,906$47,196-1.75%-0.68%
20125-11.78%-11.78%$57,262$41,638-11.08%-11.78%
201263.86%3.86%$59,471$43,2454.83%3.86%
201270.64%-0.22%$59,849$43,1480.64%-0.22%
201280.43%2.90%$60,109$44,4010.43%2.90%
201293.69%3.69%$62,327$46,0405.32%3.69%
201210-0.42%1.19%$62,068$46,586-0.42%1.19%
2012110.62%0.62%$62,454$46,8751.33%0.62%
2012123.62%3.62%$64,714$48,5725.84%3.62%
201310.61%4.96%$65,107$50,9820.61%4.96%
201320.19%0.19%$65,233$51,081-1.74%0.19%
201331.29%1.29%$66,077$51,742-1.54%1.29%
201343.70%3.70%$68,522$53,6571.32%3.70%
20135-0.49%-0.49%$68,185$53,393-3.73%-0.49%
20136-2.16%-2.16%$66,709$52,237-6.14%-2.16%
201375.50%5.50%$70,378$55,1100.97%5.50%
20138-0.66%-0.66%$69,914$54,746-3.18%-0.66%
201397.30%7.30%$75,016$58,7427.15%7.30%
2013103.99%3.99%$78,010$61,0864.65%3.99%
2013110.81%0.81%$78,643$61,581-2.02%0.81%
2013122.72%2.72%$80,783$63,258-0.96%2.72%
20141-2.23%-2.23%$78,985$61,850-7.27%-2.23%
201425.94%5.94%$83,678$65,5243.42%5.94%
201430.73%0.73%$84,292$66,0053.86%0.73%
20144-0.62%-0.62%$83,765$65,5930.51%-0.62%
201451.94%1.94%$85,388$66,8643.72%1.94%
201461.13%1.13%$86,353$67,6193.00%1.13%
20147-2.08%-2.08%$84,555$66,2111.46%-2.08%
201483.57%0.62%$87,572$66,6233.57%0.62%
20149-7.16%-4.43%$81,303$63,670-7.16%-4.43%
2014102.31%-1.51%$83,181$62,7082.31%-1.51%
201411-1.00%-1.42%$82,350$61,815-1.00%-1.42%
201412-4.97%-0.61%$78,253$61,438-4.97%-0.61%
201510.67%-0.12%$78,779$61,3640.67%-0.12%
201523.53%6.81%$81,560$65,5423.53%6.81%
201530.57%0.57%$82,024$65,915-2.08%0.57%
201543.45%3.45%$84,856$68,1907.79%3.45%
201550.88%0.88%$85,599$68,787-3.38%0.88%
20156-1.14%-1.14%$84,624$68,004-2.39%-1.14%
201571.15%1.15%$85,599$68,787-6.81%1.15%
20158-4.99%-4.99%$81,328$65,355-9.32%-4.99%
20159-3.08%-3.08%$78,821$63,341-3.25%-3.08%
2015104.59%4.59%$82,442$66,2515.57%4.59%
2015110.11%0.11%$82,535$66,325-3.25%0.11%
2015120.60%0.60%$83,030$66,723-2.45%0.60%
20161-6.67%-6.67%$77,495$62,275-6.05%-6.67%
20162-2.40%-2.40%$75,633$60,779-0.87%-2.40%
201637.58%7.58%$81,365$65,38513.04%7.58%
201640.66%0.66%$81,904$65,8180.78%0.66%
201651.44%1.44%$83,079$66,763-3.40%1.44%
20166-5.54%-5.54%$78,475$63,0625.04%-5.54%
201674.67%5.62%$82,143$66,6054.67%5.62%
201681.67%-0.18%$83,518$66,4871.67%-0.18%
201691.27%2.84%$84,579$68,3771.27%2.84%
2016100.63%-3.17%$85,114$66,2120.63%-3.17%
201611-4.36%-2.50%$81,403$64,558-4.36%-2.50%
201612-0.16%1.53%$81,272$65,545-0.16%1.53%
201714.94%4.41%$85,286$68,4354.94%4.41%
201723.28%1.82%$88,081$69,6793.28%1.82%
201732.25%3.74%$90,065$72,2882.25%3.74%
201741.39%5.39%$91,321$76,1821.39%5.39%
201754.27%4.27%$95,218$79,4331.22%4.27%
201760.51%0.51%$95,699$79,8340.78%0.51%
201773.47%3.47%$99,019$82,6045.35%3.47%
201780.39%0.39%$99,404$82,9253.05%0.39%
201793.97%3.97%$103,350$86,216-0.78%3.97%
2017101.82%1.82%$105,226$87,7822.44%1.82%
2017110.46%0.46%$105,707$88,1830.21%0.46%
2017123.14%3.14%$109,031$90,9553.49%3.14%
201815.12%5.12%$114,613$95,6128.39%5.12%
20182-4.73%-4.02%$109,195$91,767-4.73%-4.02%
20183-0.33%-0.33%$108,839$91,468-1.22%-0.33%
201840.28%0.28%$109,144$91,724-2.03%0.28%
20185-0.84%-0.84%$108,229$90,955-2.86%-0.84%
20186-2.16%-2.16%$105,890$88,990-4.50%-2.16%
201870.10%0.10%$105,992$89,0763.18%0.10%
20188-1.77%-1.77%$104,111$87,495-3.55%-1.77%
20189-1.17%-1.17%$102,891$86,470-1.31%-1.17%
201810-11.76%-11.76%$90,792$76,302-7.58%-11.76%
2018114.45%-0.39%$94,837$76,0034.45%-0.39%
201812-2.97%-7.88%$92,020$70,015-2.97%-7.88%
Portfolio return and risk metrics
MetricTiming PortfolioVanguard International Explorer Inv
Arithmetic Mean (monthly)1.07%0.93%
Arithmetic Mean (annualized)13.59%11.70%
Geometric Mean (monthly)0.88%0.78%
Geometric Mean (annualized)11.15%9.71%
Volatility (monthly)6.02%5.46%
Volatility (annualized)20.84%18.91%
Downside Deviation (monthly)3.97%3.67%
Max. Drawdown-60.22%-59.56%
US Market Correlation0.750.77
Beta(*)1.031.00
Alpha (annualized)1.31%-0.00%
R288.09%100.00%
Sharpe Ratio0.520.49
Sortino Ratio0.780.71
Treynor Ratio (%)10.579.24
Calmar Ratio0.170.06
Active Return1.44%N/A
Tracking Error7.22%N/A
Information Ratio0.20N/A
Skewness-0.47-0.60
Excess Kurtosis1.392.03
Historical Value-at-Risk (5%)-10.40%-9.14%
Analytical Value-at-Risk (5%)-8.83%-8.05%
Conditional Value-at-Risk (5%)-13.57%-12.91%
Upside Capture Ratio (%)105.55100.00
Downside Capture Ratio (%)100.51100.00
Safe Withdrawal Rate15.43%13.08%
Perpetual Withdrawal Rate8.11%6.91%
Positive Periods157 out of 252 (62.30%)153 out of 252 (60.71%)
Gain/Loss Ratio0.971.01
* Vanguard International Explorer Inv is used as the benchmark for calculations. Value-at-risk metrics are based on monthly values.

Drawdowns for Historical Market Stress Periods

Drawdowns for Historical Market Stress Periods
Stress PeriodStartEndTiming PortfolioVanguard International Explorer Inv
Russian Debt DefaultJul 1998Oct 1998-17.36%-17.36%
Dotcom CrashMar 2000Oct 2002-49.63%-52.31%
Subprime CrisisNov 2007Mar 2009-60.22%-59.56%

Drawdowns for Timing Portfolio

Drawdowns for Timing Portfolio (worst 10)
RankStartEndLengthRecovery ByRecovery TimeUnderwater PeriodDrawdown
1Nov 2007Feb 20091 year 4 monthsFeb 20145 years6 years 4 months-60.22%
2Mar 2000Sep 20011 year 7 monthsNov 20043 years 2 months4 years 9 months-49.63%
3Feb 2018Oct 20189 months-20.78%
4Aug 1998Sep 19982 monthsMar 19996 months8 months-17.36%
5Sep 2014Feb 20161 year 6 monthsFeb 20171 year2 years 6 months-13.63%
6May 2006Jul 20063 monthsDec 20065 months8 months-13.10%
7Mar 2005Apr 20052 monthsJul 20053 months5 months-8.59%
8Oct 2005Oct 20051 monthNov 20051 month2 months-6.57%
9Jul 2014Jul 20141 monthAug 20141 month2 months-2.08%
10Feb 2006Feb 20061 monthApr 20062 months3 months-1.46%
Worst 10 drawdowns included above

Drawdowns for Vanguard International Explorer Inv

Drawdowns for Vanguard International Explorer Inv (worst 10)
RankStartEndLengthRecovery ByRecovery TimeUnderwater PeriodDrawdown
1Nov 2007Feb 20091 year 4 monthsOct 20134 years 8 months6 years-59.56%
2Mar 2000Mar 20033 years 1 monthDec 20041 year 9 months4 years 10 months-53.41%
3Feb 2018Dec 201811 months-26.77%
4Aug 1998Sep 19982 monthsMar 19996 months8 months-17.36%
5Aug 2015Feb 20167 monthsFeb 20171 year1 year 7 months-11.64%
6Jul 2014Jan 20157 monthsApr 20153 months10 months-9.25%
7May 2006Jul 20063 monthsOct 20063 months6 months-7.44%
8Jun 2007Aug 20073 monthsOct 20072 months5 months-4.51%
9Mar 2005Apr 20052 monthsJul 20053 months5 months-4.19%
10Oct 2005Oct 20051 monthDec 20052 months3 months-4.10%
Worst 10 drawdowns included above
Rolling returns summary
Roll PeriodTiming PortfolioVanguard International Explorer Inv
AverageHighLowAverageHighLow
1 year15.33%90.29%-48.53%13.98%90.29%-46.62%
3 years11.03%36.93%-8.65%9.82%35.70%-13.40%
5 years10.50%33.05%-3.21%9.13%27.92%-4.07%
7 years10.78%20.67%0.38%9.37%18.23%2.05%
10 years10.26%22.52%3.65%8.41%18.22%2.60%
15 years10.61%13.26%8.21%9.27%12.49%6.48%
Result statistics are based on annualized rolling returns over full calendar year periods
Timing periods and related holdings for the timing portfolio
#StartEndMonthsAssetsAsset PerformanceTiming PortfolioVanguard International Explorer Inv
1Jan 1998Jan 200137100.00% Vanguard International Explorer Inv (VINEX)VINEX: 137.21%137.21%137.21%
2Feb 2001Apr 20013100.00% Vanguard Emerging Mkts Stock Idx Inv (VEIEX)VEIEX: -10.62%-10.62%-7.60%
3May 2001May 20011100.00% Vanguard International Explorer Inv (VINEX)VINEX: -2.21%-2.21%-2.21%
4Jun 2001Jun 200213100.00% Vanguard Emerging Mkts Stock Idx Inv (VEIEX)VEIEX: -3.04%-3.04%-12.67%
5Jul 2002Jul 20021100.00% Vanguard International Explorer Inv (VINEX)VINEX: -9.07%-9.07%-9.07%
6Aug 2002Apr 20039100.00% Vanguard Emerging Mkts Stock Idx Inv (VEIEX)VEIEX: 2.60%2.60%-4.84%
7May 2003Jul 20033100.00% Vanguard International Explorer Inv (VINEX)VINEX: 20.89%20.89%20.89%
8Aug 2003Sep 20032100.00% Vanguard Emerging Mkts Stock Idx Inv (VEIEX)VEIEX: 7.20%7.20%9.71%
9Oct 2003Oct 20031100.00% Vanguard International Explorer Inv (VINEX)VINEX: 5.22%5.22%5.22%
10Nov 2003Jan 20043100.00% Vanguard Emerging Mkts Stock Idx Inv (VEIEX)VEIEX: 12.36%12.36%12.96%
11Feb 2004Sep 20048100.00% Vanguard International Explorer Inv (VINEX)VINEX: 6.36%6.36%6.36%
12Oct 2004Mar 20056100.00% Vanguard Emerging Mkts Stock Idx Inv (VEIEX)VEIEX: 20.40%20.40%22.38%
13Apr 2005May 20052100.00% Vanguard International Explorer Inv (VINEX)VINEX: -1.66%-1.66%-1.66%
14Jun 2005May 200612100.00% Vanguard Emerging Mkts Stock Idx Inv (VEIEX)VEIEX: 37.89%37.89%35.78%
15Jun 2006Aug 20063100.00% Vanguard International Explorer Inv (VINEX)VINEX: -0.34%-0.34%-0.34%
16Sep 2006Sep 20061100.00% Vanguard Emerging Mkts Stock Idx Inv (VEIEX)VEIEX: 0.72%0.72%1.82%
17Oct 2006Nov 20062100.00% Vanguard International Explorer Inv (VINEX)VINEX: 8.34%8.34%8.34%
18Dec 2006Jan 20072100.00% Vanguard Emerging Mkts Stock Idx Inv (VEIEX)VEIEX: 3.56%3.56%7.01%
19Feb 2007May 20074100.00% Vanguard International Explorer Inv (VINEX)VINEX: 10.17%10.17%10.17%
20Jun 2007Sep 200816100.00% Vanguard Emerging Mkts Stock Idx Inv (VEIEX)VEIEX: -19.54%-19.54%-37.14%
21Oct 2008Mar 20096100.00% Vanguard International Explorer Inv (VINEX)VINEX: -28.31%-28.31%-28.31%
22Apr 2009Dec 201021100.00% Vanguard Emerging Mkts Stock Idx Inv (VEIEX)VEIEX: 109.03%109.03%97.99%
23Jan 2011Jul 20117100.00% Vanguard International Explorer Inv (VINEX)VINEX: 0.30%0.30%0.30%
24Aug 2011Sep 20112100.00% Vanguard Emerging Mkts Stock Idx Inv (VEIEX)VEIEX: -23.34%-23.34%-20.33%
25Oct 2011Oct 20111100.00% Vanguard International Explorer Inv (VINEX)VINEX: 8.18%8.18%8.18%
26Nov 2011Apr 20126100.00% Vanguard Emerging Mkts Stock Idx Inv (VEIEX)VEIEX: 4.54%4.54%6.40%
27May 2012Jun 20122100.00% Vanguard International Explorer Inv (VINEX)VINEX: -8.37%-8.37%-8.37%
28Jul 2012Aug 20122100.00% Vanguard Emerging Mkts Stock Idx Inv (VEIEX)VEIEX: 1.07%1.07%2.67%
29Sep 2012Sep 20121100.00% Vanguard International Explorer Inv (VINEX)VINEX: 3.69%3.69%3.69%
30Oct 2012Oct 20121100.00% Vanguard Emerging Mkts Stock Idx Inv (VEIEX)VEIEX: -0.42%-0.42%1.19%
31Nov 2012Dec 20122100.00% Vanguard International Explorer Inv (VINEX)VINEX: 4.26%4.26%4.26%
32Jan 2013Jan 20131100.00% Vanguard Emerging Mkts Stock Idx Inv (VEIEX)VEIEX: 0.61%0.61%4.96%
33Feb 2013Jul 201418100.00% Vanguard International Explorer Inv (VINEX)VINEX: 29.87%29.87%29.87%
34Aug 2014Feb 20157100.00% Vanguard Emerging Mkts Stock Idx Inv (VEIEX)VEIEX: -3.54%-3.54%-1.01%
35Mar 2015Jun 201616100.00% Vanguard International Explorer Inv (VINEX)VINEX: -3.78%-3.78%-3.78%
36Jul 2016Apr 201710100.00% Vanguard Emerging Mkts Stock Idx Inv (VEIEX)VEIEX: 16.37%16.37%20.80%
37May 2017Jan 20189100.00% Vanguard International Explorer Inv (VINEX)VINEX: 25.51%25.51%25.51%
38Feb 2018Feb 20181100.00% Vanguard Emerging Mkts Stock Idx Inv (VEIEX)VEIEX: -4.73%-4.73%-4.02%
39Mar 2018Oct 20188100.00% Vanguard International Explorer Inv (VINEX)VINEX: -16.85%-16.85%-16.85%
40Nov 2018Dec 20182100.00% Vanguard Emerging Mkts Stock Idx Inv (VEIEX)VEIEX: 1.35%1.35%-8.24%
41Jan 2019Jan 20191100.00% Vanguard Emerging Mkts Stock Idx Inv (VEIEX)---