Monte Carlo Simulation
This Monte Carlo simulation tool provides a means to test long term expected portfolio growth and portfolio survival based on withdrawals,
e.g., testing whether the portfolio can sustain the planned withdrawals required for retirement or by an endowment fund.
The following simulation models are supported for portfolio returns:
- Historical Returns - Simulate future returns by randomly selecting the returns for each year based on available historical returns
- Forecasted Returns - Simulate future returns based on any forecasted mean and standard deviation of assets
- Statistical Returns - Simulate future returns based on the mean, volatility and correlations of portfolios assets
- Parameterized Returns - Simulate future returns based on the specified statistical distribution
You can choose from several different withdrawal models including:
Fixed annual withdrawal or contribution - Apply a fixed annual withdrawal or contribution.
Yearly inflation adjustments are by default done for the specified withdrawal or contribution amount based on the selected model.
Fixed annual percentage - Withdraw a fixed percentage of the portfolio balance annually.
This model ensures that the portfolio never runs out, but the annual spending amount varies based on the portfolio growth.
The percentage based withdrawal can be smoothed by using the rolling portfolio average or a geometric spending rule.
Life expectancy based annual withdrawal - This model withdraws a variable percentage of the portfolio
balance based on life expectancy. This is the RMD approach where the withdrawal percentage is 1 / Life Expectancy.
Custom sequence - Import custom sequence of periodic cashflows from a file.
To simulate multiple stages such as career and retirement with detailed cashflow goals use the Financial Goals planning tool.
Monte Carlo Simulation Results
Monte Carlo simulation results for 10000 portfolios with $1.00 initial portfolio balance using the normal distribution with 7.00% mean and 12.00% standard deviation for annual returns. The simulation results are based on generated nominal returns and specified inflation adjusted contributions ($2,060 per month). The simulated inflation model used normal distribution with 2.00% mean and 0.00% standard deviation based on the parameters. The generated inflation samples were uncorrelated with simulated asset returns.
|10th Percentile||25th Percentile||50th Percentile||75th Percentile||90th Percentile|
|Time Weighted Rate of Return (nominal)||1.57%||3.83%||6.38%||8.90%||11.27%|
|Time Weighted Rate of Return (real)||-0.42%||1.80%||4.30%||6.77%||9.10%|
|Portfolio End Balance (nominal)||$285,800||$325,535||$376,339||$434,219||$496,547|
|Portfolio End Balance (real)||$234,455||$267,052||$308,729||$356,211||$407,341|
|Maximum Drawdown Excluding Cashflows||-30.50%||-24.74%||-19.47%||-15.52%||-12.76%|
|Safe Withdrawal Rate||9.41%||10.75%||12.42%||14.22%||16.10%|
|Perpetual Withdrawal Rate||0.00%||1.77%||4.11%||6.33%||8.33%|
Notes on results:
- IMPORTANT: The projections or other information generated by Portfolio Visualizer regarding the likelihood of various investment outcomes are hypothetical in nature, do not reflect actual investment results and are not guarantees of future results. Results may vary with each use and over time.
- The results do not constitute investment advice or recommendation, are provided solely for informational purposes, and are not an offer to buy or sell any securities. All use is subject to terms of service.
- Investing involves risk, including possible loss of principal. Past performance is not a guarantee of future results.
- Asset allocation and diversification strategies do not guarantee a profit or protect against a loss.
- Hypothetical returns do not reflect trading costs, transaction fees, or actual taxes due on investment returns.
- The results are based on information from a variety of sources we consider reliable, but we do not represent that the information is accurate or complete.
- Refer to the related documentation sections for more details on terms and definitions, methodology, and data sources.
- A Monte Carlo simulation is a mathematical technique designed to provide a range of possible outcomes to determine the probability of a particular result or set of results. The simulation provides a distribution of possible results, which are used to derive the probability of different outcomes.
- The results are based on the total return of assets and assume that all received dividends and distributions are reinvested.
- The probability of success is based on the number of simulations the portfolio survives with a positive end balance.
- Maximum drawdown statistics are calculated from simulated monthly balances.
- Safe withdrawal rate is the percentage of the original portfolio balance that can be withdrawn at the end of each year with inflation adjustment without the portfolio running out of money.
- Perpetual withdrawal rate is the percentage of portfolio balance that can be withdrawn at the end of each year while retaining the inflation adjusted portfolio balance.
- Contributions and withdrawals are done at the end of each specified time period
Expected Annual Return
Expected Annual Return
|Percentile||1 Year||3 Years||5 Years||10 Years|
Annual Return Probabilities
Annual Return Probabilities
|Return||1 Year||3 Years||5 Years||10 Years|
|Loss||Loss Probability Excluding Cashflows||Loss Probability Including Cashflows|
|Within Time Period||End of Time Period||Within Time Period||End of Time Period|
|Loss is measured against the original portfolio balance.|